This study used EVCB to influence perception of ambiguous prevocational situations. Participants exhibit hostile intentions after short-term exposure to EVCB. Subjects exposed to Comic books over the long-term are no different in their responses to subjects who haven’t been exposed. EVCB may cause aggression but the effect is short lived and there are no discernible long-term effects. It’s found that those highest in trait hostility responded aggressively regardless of what material they have read and that females reading EVCB respond most aggressively to scenarios involving relational aggression. Gender and Trait Hostility as well as exposure to violent media determine aggressive responding.

What’s important to remember is that anything can cause associations of violence. Catcher in the Rye inspired Mark Chapman to shoot John Lennon; Helter Skelter was the theme song for the Manson Family’s ruthless spree of murders. Even the Bible, the holiest of all media, can said to have been responsible for one or two acts of violence. Some people will always draw links between media and violence. No doubt in Norman Times arch comic-a-phobe Frederick Wertham would have complained about violent tapestries (since they exhibit a splendid example of the “injury-to-the-eye motif”- see Appendix). “Different people can perceive the same objective stimulus differently depending on the subjective meanings they attach to it and these meanings often derive from their idiosyncratic personal histories” (Batholow, Anderson, Carnagay & Benjamin, 2003). The psychological arousal experienced by comic book readers has been explained as being about an interaction between the images and the individual personality characteristics (Kirsch & Olczak, 2002). If someone is well balanced then reading a violent comic book won’t affect them much. If they’re unbalanced then watching breakfast TV may well set them off on a violent killing spree. The majority of comic books offer nothing more than harmless escapism. The EVCB which prime the aggressive networks are only a small proportion of the available titles. They’re not representative of the comic book market. The most successful company that produces violent have a market share of around 3% (Diamond, 2007). EVCB are marked for adults, are not sold to children and are only available in specialist stores. Since adults are less likely to be affected by negative long-term effects from reading EVCB (Bushman & Huesmann, 2006) then the effects of such material must surely be limited. 

Renowned thinker Umberto Eco believed that comic book readers are “prevented by ‘easy’ messages from having access to other more nourishing experiences”. This attitude to comic books is a common one. Given the global discrediting of comic books as both sub- literate and only fit for children the evolution of this cultural form has been significantly disrupted (Lopes, 2006). It’s not only the medium which is damaged by such attitudes. It’s suggested a person’s social identity can be discredited by the power of single attribute. Despite this maligning comics “potential is limitless and exciting” (McCloud, 1996). It would be a shame to see this infinite realm of wonder and amazement limited by the science of the mundane and the opinions of the uninformed.